What is Solar Tracker System Project
Nowadays the use of Solar panel is increasing day by day. The Solar panel converts it into electric energy by obtaining energy from the sun, which is stored in a battery so that it can be used in the absence of the sun. The use of solar panels is going to increase considerably in the coming time.
What is solar tracker or sun tracker for solar panel.
Solar Tracker is a device that maintains the direction of the bottom of the solar panel towards the sun. As a result, we can get the maximum possible energy from the solar panel. As non-renewable energy resources are decreasing, the use of renewable resources for power generation is increasing. The solar panel receives maximum energy if the sun is constantly in front of the panel, but it is not possible to know because the position of the sun and solar tracker varies relative to each other due to the rotation of the earth.
To get maximum energy from the solar panel, it is necessary to rotate according to the position of the sun so that the bottom of the panel is towards the sun. This task is only possible with the help of a solar tracker. Solar Tracker is a device that maintains the direction of the bottom of the solar panel towards the sun to minimize the angle of incidence of the ray and solar panel coming from the sun.
Type of solar trackers :
2. Dual-axis solar trackers:
These can move on to two different axis. This type of trackers follow the sun vertically and horizontally and help to get maximum energy from the sun.
How does solar tracker work?
The basic concept behind this is that the rays coming from the sun have two components, “direct sunlight” containing 90% of the sun’s ray of energy, the other is “diffuse sun-light), which contains the remaining part of the energy. Because direct sunlight contains maximum part maximum of energy, it is important that the sun rays collide directly for as long as possible with the solar panel. Without clouds, the light diffuse spreading in the open sky comes in sun-light. If the sky is surrounded by clouds and then the ratio increases.
Even in cloudy days, the ratio of direct sunlight and diffuse sunlight can be 60:40 or even less. Since diffuse sunlight is scattered, scattered rays throughout the sky, it will collide with solar panels at all times and the application of the solar tracker can reduce the depreciation caused by the introduction of direct sunlight, as a result we get the maximum possible energy from the solar panel. they do. The energy from the solar panel decreases with the cosine of the direct sunlight, the angle (i) of the sunlight and solar panel where i is the angle between the solar panel and the ray coming from the sun.
Two different ways to make a sun tracker for solar panel :
1. Using microcontroller programming
- The sun tracker in which programming is used is somewhat expensive. Which a common man cannot buy.
- Because they require programming and microcontroller. Such solar trackers are also difficult to make.
2. Without using programming or Programming
I created this project during my Graduation. In which no programming has been used in any way.
In this post I’m going to tell you about a solar tracker that can be made without programming. This is a solar tracker diy & Budget Solar panel. Because you can prepare it in a cheap budget even at home.
List of components for making a solar tracker :-
1. LDR (Light Dependent Resistor)
- The simplest optical sensor is a photon resister or photo-cell which is a light-sensitive resistance.
- Resistance of LDR decreases with an increase in light intensity (Intensity).
2. Op-amp (IC-741)
- When an op-amp is used in differential mode without a feedback circuit, its voltage gain is very high (about 200,000).
- This returns output result 200,000 times the difference of two inputs (inverting and non-inverting).
3. Simple, DC Gear Motor
- 25-35 RPM (rotation/rotation) in this design design. simple gear-motor can be used.
4. Battery Battery
- A battery is used by the solar panel to store converted electric energy.
- When there are clouds in the sky, there will be no enough electric energy to run the circuit, so it is better to connect the circuit directly to the battery.
5. LED- 2 pcs and Resistances
- I used resistance use of 1k, 3.2k, 15k ohm to make this project.
6. Other Apparatus Used
- Project will also require some more accessories to create.
- Soldering iron, 8-pin IC holder, PCB Board, Breadboard, Multimeter, Resistance Box, Lux-meter (Smartphone can also use) to measure light intensity (intensity of light)
Procedure to make a sun tracker for solar panel :
After you prepare all the components as list above, you need to create a circuit diagram on the bread-board as per the picture below. This circuit has two parts; One that has previously highlighted the green is to make it by LDR and resistance. The output from both LDRs is then added to the input pin-2, pin-3 of the op-amplifier fitted in differential mode. Then connect the output of the op-amplifier to the simple DC motor.
Now the motor has to be connected to your solar panel so that the solar panel can move around the motor. Here I’m showing a picture below in which I’ve directly connected the solar panel with the motor. The two LDRs have to be put together between whom an opaque/opaque/non-opaque…. Opaque object (e.g. cardapa/cardoque) Piece of cardboard) to use. Both LDRs now have to adjust with solar panels so that the sun rays can be on the solar panel as well as ldrs. Now your solar tracker is ready.
Working of this sun tracker for solar panel :
1. If the intensity of light on LDR-1 is higher relative to LDR-2.
- So its (LDR-1) resistance will be low and the output voltage that it receives will be higher.
- Therefore, the voltage at the op-amp’s (+) terminal will be higher relative to the (-) terminal.
- Thus, the output of the op-amp in this situation will receive voltage (+) (non-inverted).
- Assuming the DC motor moves clockwise in this position, you need to put LDR-1 on the solar panel in the left-side relative to the other LDR.
2. If the intensity of light on LDR-2 is higher relative to LDR-1.
- So its resistance will be low and the output voltage that it receives will be higher.
- Therefore, the voltage at the op-amp’s (-) terminal will be higher relative to the (+) terminal.
- Thus, voltage (-) (inverted) will be obtained on the output of the op-amp in this situation.Then the DC motor will rotate anti-clockwise in this situation.
- As we have installed an opaque object between the two LDRs, the intensity of light on both LDRs will be in one position when the panel is rotated and the luggage will vogelate at both the terminal (-) And (+) of the op-amp and its output voltage will be zero.
- The motor will remain stalled at this stage, but as soon as the sun’s direction is changed, the intensity of light on both the motor LDRs will turn around to the luggage. In this way, the direction of the motor’s rotation will control the light on ldrs.
Motor will only come to a stalled state when the intensity of light on both LDRs is uniform and as we have applied them with the solar panel, it is possible when the light source or the sun is in front of the solar panel. Otherwise the motor will turn around until it adjusts the solar panel towards the sun.
Yes, you have read Whai is Solar Tracker System Project
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